Intrafamilial relationships and their influence on academic performance

Genesis Masa Sarango.; Yenny Moreno Salazar; Ignacia Luzuriaga Granda; Verónica Cabrera González

Licenciada en Trabajo Social, Supervisor del Ministerio de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda de Loja, Supervisor del Ministerio de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda de Loja, Ecuador , Yenny Moreno Salazar Ingeniera en Contabilidad y Auditoría, Magister en Gerencia Contable y Financiera Docente titular de las carreras de Contabilidad y Auditoría; Banca Finanzas y Nivel de Posgrado Universidad Nacional de Loja, Docente titular de las carreras de Contabilidad y Auditoría, Ecuador, E-mail: , Doctora en Contabilidad y Auditoría, Magister en Administración de Empresas, Docente titular de las carrera de Contabilidad y Auditoría, Docente titular de las carrera de Contabilidad y Auditoría, Ecuador , Licenciada en Contabilidad y Auditoría, Contador Público-Auditor, Magister en Finanzas, Docente de las carrera de Contabilidad y Auditoría de la Universidad Nacional de Loja, Docente de las carrera de Contabilidad y Auditoría de la Universidad Nacional de Loja, Ecuador, E-mail:



Abstract

The present investigation was carried out in the Educational Unit "Pio Jaramillo Alvarado" of the city of Loja, where the students of the tenth parallel year "A" of Basic General Education participated, afternoon section; in order to corroborate the different causes that affect the academic performance of the students. For which it was necessary the theoretical and scientific foundation of the object of study through its categories, determining the diverse causes that influence students during their academic process. The methodology applied in the research was approached through the scientific, qualitative, deductive - inductive, analytical and synthetic method that contributed in the quantitative analysis, the sample that was initially taken was 20 students, 9 teachers and 20 parents of family, its approach was quantitative-qualitative; the techniques used were participant observation, in-depth interview with structured questions previously analyzed by the researcher and focus roups which consisted of three sessions each. The information obtained allowed to determine that family relationships do influence the academic performance of students, caused by distrust, mistreatment, low affectivity, teenage pregnancy, illicit substance use, alcohol, work, health, economy, abandonment of home on the part of the father figure, which have caused a low performance in the students, who have generated daily calls to the Department of Student Counseling (DECE) and consequently, the approach of the parents to the Educational Institution is proceeded . The purpose of the research is to design a Social Action Plan to strengthen the bonds of trust between parents and children of the Educational Institution and be reflected during their educational training process.

Received: 2018 January 9; Accepted: 2019 September 18

5735. 2020 ; 1(5)

Keywords: Keywords Intrafamilial relationships, academic performance, Social Work in education.
Keywords: Palabras clave Relaciones intrafamiliares, rendimiento académico, trabajo social en educación.

INTRODUCTION

The poor academic performance of high school students is generally evident in many schools.(Navarro, 2003) Cita a Cascón, that academic performance is one of the social problems, not just academic, that are occupying policy makers, education professionals, parents of students; and to the public, in general, is the achievement of an effective and effective educational system that provides students with the ideal framework where to develop their potential.

Based on intrafamily relationships, it is important to address that "Close and caring relationships are the needs of human beings and the very ability to express what is thought and felt depends a lot on how relationships are shaped with human beings other people. “The conception of family managed by young people varies according to the internal relationships of each home space, relationships that determine their conception of life." (Garzón , Hno. Rojas , Baquero, Gaviria, & Jojoa , 2007, pág. 14). Family functioning is partially conditioned by the socio-cultural context in which families develop, that evaluation can be taken into account from the typology of the circumflex model, reflecting the various forms of interaction. The importance of intervention in the family world could be justified, as Musitu and Cols point out. "By the family climate, which is directly related to intelligence, school achievement, school self-esteem, cognitive-emotional competence and appropriate socioeconomic development". (Ochoa & Gonzalo, 1996, pág. 382).

Intra-family relationships have not only detected the confluence of school factors and emotional aspects of the student (personal, social and family) as responsible for their academic achievements, noting that their results are the product, not only of their capabilities, but also the interaction of resources provided by school and home.

Literature Review

Family

Para Carbonell, José y Luciano Febvre,(Oliva Gómez. & Villa Guardiola., 2014) The family is the basis of the society where social risks are shared, such as the economic condition, lack of access to education, family problems, among others, they also consider it to be the group of people who live in the same place and on the other you can see it from the genetic point since they mention that the family is the one that has kinship of inbreeding.

Role of the family

For ( Domínguez Martínez , mayo 2010) the role that the father of the family must play with his/her daughter is completely social as they are responsible for educating, motivating, giving affection, being agents of socialization, seeing his clothing, feeding, giving confidence, among others, and even to various situations that are can present.

Intra-Family relations.

For (Garzón , Hno. Rojas , Baquero, Gaviria, & Jojoa , 2007, pág. 14) and (Ochoa & Gonzalo, 1996, pág. 382) intra-family relationships are everyone's needs, but it depends as much as they are so that the individual can express his emotions, this is due to the management of internal relationships, since you are may or may not be homey, just like the first authors as well they share that intra-family relationships are conditioned by a sociocultural context i.e. by the family climate, which relates it to self-esteem, school achievement, individual intelligence.

Education.

(Brenes R. & Porras O., 2007) Education is formed by the family, social, and school environment which are forming the way of being of the person, on the other hand, they agree that family and school are agents of socialization, are key to the progress of the child, which is based on a good com unique.

Academic Performance

(Guevara Melo, Tovar Paredes, & Jaramillo Concha, 2013) and ( Lastre Meza, López Salazar, & Alcázar Berrío, 2017) associate two dimensions in academic performance which have to do with the social and the individual, both aspects complement the knowledge of the person, but also associate the family environment where the person develops, on the other hand they claim that there is two factors in academic performance which is the psychological in which it mentions the characteristics of the individual and sociological, they also mention to the family group but added to it the school context agreeing that the family by becoming more involved in the schools see positive and successful results in the students, due to the interest and support they provide.

Academic performance and family environment

(Robledo Ramón & García Sánchez, 2009) , the family is the main predictor for the student to perform properly in the school, and is even responsible, but not the only one in the school performance of their children, in addition they are considered two more aspects to consider where the student can complement their performance that are personal and social.

Social Work

(Ramírez , 2013), Social Work is a discipline, science and art, which thanks to the evolution and reconceptualization that the profession has had, has been able to come up with innovative programs in the social field to give change to different situations given today and either in improvement and the benefit of individuals in order to have a more humane society, to enhance and leverage their resources held by the community, which will have as a function change and transformation.

Social work in education

(Roselló Nadal, 2010) Social Work in Education is the technical assistance that promotes the establishment and strengthening of relations between the school, family and community environment, the school and social integration of students who have difficulties in adapting to the educational context because of their personal, family or social circumstances and intervention on all those obstacles that impede the integral development of the child.

Family social work

It takes care that the rights of children are respected, the permanence of the student in the school, in cases necessary is performed orientation of alternative services (support of a specialist). Check for attendance, that students have what is essential for learning. Action functions within the education-family area are essential, six can be distinguished from them:

• Removing barriers to educational inclusion, providing guidance and support needed to get the student included by the educational community.

· Conducting home visits.

· Application of interviews to parents to know the social and family situation of the students.

· Promoter and guidance for the contribution of a comprehensive education, responding to those factors that affect the harmonious development of the teaching-learning process.

· Design of community partner extension programs that strengthen a comprehensive education.

· Coordinate establishment with social services institutions, and from social training actions on family (Díaz Herráiz, Fernández García, & Alemán Bracho, 2003) (Amador Anguiano, 2007)

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This research required the theoretical and scientific basis of the object of study through its categories.

The methodology applied in the research, was addressed by the scientific method, which helped to determine the documentary and bibliographic information relevant to the research, also resulted in a new contribution for new research; the qualitative method was used to collect information provided by students, parents and teachers through interviews and focus groups, the deductive method who helped determined causes and effects, specific conclusions based on the study problem, the inductive method allowed to have particular premises of the behavior of each of those involved in the research, the analytical method helped to ungroup by parts of the subject of study; where a thorough analysis of a whole and finally the synthetic method was carried out that allowed the collected information to be joined or reconstructed.

Focus groups were applied to parents, teachers and students in which relevant information was collected and in others not so much, just as the same in-depth interview that was applied to students and the Department Coordinator was used Student Counseling, which made it possible to obtain more securely the information necessary for the investigative work and finally the participating observation was used, where the behavior of both the teacher and the student within the classroom were evident.

Instrument

Research based on three variables relates to whether it obeys a theoretical development, which consists in the presentation of themes, conceptualizations from empirical-scientific analysis, why the activities carried out were documentary and descriptive, which allowed the information contained in the diagnostic and intervention processes to be contrasted through participating observation, in-depth interview and focus groups. In the same way, a comprehensive bibliometric review of scientific articles related to the subject was studied the cases affecting this sociocultural problem.

Population and sample

The population consisted of 335 participants and an unprobable and intentional sample was taken, that is, that it had only parallel that was the tenth year "A" of Basic General Education, evening section for the respective research due to the existing problem focused on that course. The sample was 20 students, 9 teachers and 20 parents, which gave a total of 49 participants.

RESULTS

Intra-family relationships are the fundamental basis of a family because communication, affection and trust must be part of the daily life, according to the instruments used in the course of research, it was determined that intra-family relationships if they influence the academic performance of students, due to multiple situations such as: mistrust, ill-treatment, abandonment of the father figure, health, economics, alcohol-illicit substance consumption, little affection, work and teenage pregnancy, the student is therefore influenced and reflected in his or her grades, on the other hand the student's disinterest and lack of commitment are added to the multiple situations presented by the student during his/her teaching/learning process, and the accompaniment of parents to their children is very worrying, because they consider that both the family, son and institution must remain together and that is lacking, most parents rarely go to ask what their children's progress is like, as well as the calls of meetings, you have the presence of the same , only when the wake-up calls are made do you see the presence of the parents, but not because they want to know how the progress of their sons and daughters is going.

DISCUSSION

The family is a system that must function properly and be organized for the benefit of all its members. When we talk about family functioning we refer specifically to "a set of elements that characterize each family and that explain the regularities that are observed in the way each family system behaves".

They consider academic performance as a part of the educational process which, in turn, is constituted of two dimensions: an individual and a social one; they also mention that it will be through this process that the student acquires new forms and models of behavior and new knowledge that will depend not only on the institutional educational context but also on the family and social environment.

Most parents show little importance in their children's affairs and with school.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the diagnosis made the intrafamily relationships that the students maintain in their home are unfavourable because the various circumstances in which they go do not let their family nucleus be in harmony, as problems such as: lack of confidence, work, health, economics, abandonment by the father figure, ill-treatment, low affection, teenage pregnancy, use of illicit substances, alcohol do not allow them to perform adequately in their studies.

With the collection of information obtained directly from the teachers and Secretariat of the Educational Unit "Pío Jaramillo Alvarado" the grades and evolution of the students are unfavorable as it remains in a fair range to the note set for next year, some of the causes are disinterest on the part of the student towards the subject, do not carry the material agreed with him or the teacher or there is simply no taste to study, in addition to the problems caused at home make his performance lower than usual.

In the Educational Unit "Pío Jaramillo Alvarado", evening section, of the city of Loja, there is a high level of poor intra-family relations that affects students, because it is reflected in the

academic process of the student, that is, there are difficulties of good school performance, which creates a social problem due to the limited visits of parents to the school, which has led to a matter of individual training, some of the consequences are: low notes , non-compliance with tasks, supplements and disinterest on the part of students.

Due to poor intra-family relationships between parents and children, a "Social Action Plan" was carried out to enhance the strengthening of affective bonds in improving the bonds of trust, through workshops, talks and recreational activities, considering the role that the Social Worker must play in such situations as an educator, manager, facilitator, empowerer, which will allow for greater union within the family and to raise awareness of the importance of mother in the formation and accompaniment of their child within the school.


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